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Karyotyping: Current perspectives in diagnosis of chromosomal disorders
Suresh Kandagal Veerabhadrappa, Pramod Redder Chandrappa, Seema Yadav Roodmal, Sharan J Shetty, Gunjiganur S Madhu Shankari, Kumbar P Mohan Kumar
May-August 2016, 3(2):35-40
A majority of the genetic abnormalities are directly related to the chromosomal aberrations. Cytogenetics is the diagnostic study of the structure and properties of chromosomes and cell division, which employs various methods, one of them being "karyotyping." It refers to a procedure of photographic representation of a stained preparation in which the chromosomes are arranged in a standard manner. The development of newer techniques such as "karyotyping" has made it possible to visualize undetected chromosomal anomalies such as small portions of chromosomes and translocations of tiny parts of chromosomes to one another. Because such procedures also enabled each pair of chromosomes to be distinguished individually, it has helped to further our understanding of the chromosomal basis of certain important genetic disorders. This review article highlights the importance of "karyotyping" and its importance in the diagnosis of chromosomal disorders.
  19,295 5,455 -
Evaluation of mean platelet volume before and after iron deficiency anemia treatment
Suleyman Yuce, Medine Cumhur Cure, Erkan Cure, Sefa Kiztanir, Tarkan Yazici
January-April 2015, 2(1):7-10
Background: Iron inhibits megakaryopoiesis so iron deficiency anemia (IDA) leads to microthrombosis. Iron therapy ameliorates thrombocytosis. In this study, we investigated whether young, active, and large platelets are released into peripheral blood during iron treatment. Mean platelet volume (MPV) was measured as an indicator for the presence of these platelets. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients (10 males and 70 females) with IDA were included in this retrospective study. IDA was defined as ferritin level <50 ng/mL with a transferrin saturation <20% or ferritin <15 ng/mL. Daily ferrous sulfate (270 mg iron II sulfate and 80 mg of elemental iron) was given orally to patients. We evaluated retrospectively the hematologic and biochemical parameters prior to and 1 month after iron treatment. Results: the mean ferritin level of the pretreatment group was 6.5 ± 4.0 ng/mL, MPV was 7.9 ± 1.5 fL, hemoglobin (Hb) was 9.8 ± 1.5 g/dL and the mean cellular volume (MCV) was 71.2 ± 7.2 fL. The mean ferritin level of the posttreatment group was 40.3 ± 15.2 ng/mL, MPV was 8.6 ± 2.0 fL, Hb was 12.5 ± 6.6 g/dL, and MCV was 77.6 ± 5.4 fL. The levels of ferritin (P < 0.001), MPV (P < 0.001), MCV (P < 0.001), and Hb (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the posttreatment group compared to the pretreatment group. Conclusion: There may be an increase in thrombotic events due to hypercoagulability related to microthrombosis during IDA. Even though thrombosis is corrected during iron treatment, the therapy increases the release of large and active thrombocytes into the peripheral blood.
  15,542 430 2
A female patient with urethral calculus presenting with bladder distention: A case report
Tanrivermis Sayit Asli, Ulu Muhamed Bahattin, Idilman Sedakat Ilkay, Gunbey Hediye Pinar
January-April 2015, 2(1):21-23
Urethral calculi are extremely rare, especially in female patients, and usually associated with genitourinary tract abnormalities such as urethral stricture or diverticulum. Primary calculus of the urethra is very rare and usually associated with congenital diverticulum. Secondary urethral calculus, often originate from the kidney or bladder. However, primary calculus of the urethra is very rare and is usually associated with congenital diverticulum. Diagnosis of urethral calculus is difficult due to location, and failure of the diagnosis may cause urethral injury, incontinence or renal insufficiency. Herein, we report the computed tomography, clinical and surgical findings of a urethral calculus in a female patient without any urogenital anomaly.
  10,745 292 -
A community-based comparative study of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among urban and rural populations in a coastal town of South India
Imaad Mohammed Ismail, Annarao G Kulkarni, Anand D Meundi, M Amruth
May-August 2016, 3(2):41-47
Background: Hypertension is the new-era pandemic, which causes about 7.1 million deaths per year globally. Various risk factors are implicated in the development of hypertension and there are differences in these risk factors in urban and rural populations depending on the level of development and epidemiological transition. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to identify and compare some sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with hypertension in urban and rural populations of Sullia, Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: This was a community based cross-sectional study in which 300 adults each were randomly selected from urban and rural populations of the town of Sullia using modified cluster sampling method. Selected individuals were examined and interviewed using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 21.0% (23.7% in the urban population and 18.3% in the rural population). Increasing age, sedentary occupation, higher socioeconomic status, extra salt intake, family history of hypertension, reduced physical activity, tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 , and high waist-hip ratio (WHR) were found to be significant risk factors of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , and high WHR were found to be predominant risk factors of hypertension in the urban areas, whereas smokeless tobacco consumption was a predominant risk factor in the rural areas. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypertension was observed in both urban and rural populations of Sullia, Karnataka, South India. Hence, mass screening should be done for early diagnosis and treatment. Prevention and control activities should give higher priority toward obesity control in urban areas and smokeless tobacco control in rural areas.
  8,056 2,090 -
Ganglion cyst of the Hoffa's fat pad of the knee joint
Rahul R Bagul, Vivek Savaskar, Rohit Malhotra, Sachin Patel
September-December 2015, 2(3):69-71
We report a rare case of ganglion cyst of Hoffa's fat pad of knee joint. These lesions are asymptomatic in most cases and are often misdiagnosed as meniscal or ligamentous lesions of the knee joint. The final diagnosis was done with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint, and the lesion was treated with surgery. It was not possible to resect the lesion through arthroscope, so open resection and complete excision of the cyst was done.
  6,796 341 -
A rare cause of pleurisy in pregnancy: Tuberculosis
Aysegul Baysak, Gulfem Ece, Julide Celdir Emre, Adnan Tolga Oz, Erkan Sahin
January-April 2014, 1(1):9-11
Tuberculosis is a granulomatous infectious disease of lungs due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease and tuberculosis pleurisy takes place with acute disease symptoms. We aimed to present a rare case of young pregnant woman with pleural effusion due to tuberculosis in light of literature.
  6,507 332 1
Chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphisms among couples with recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure
Guluzar Arzu Turan, Isin Kaya, Mine GenÁ, Esin Kasap, Fatma Eskicioglu, Esra Bahar Gur, Sumeyra Tatar, Nur Sahin
September-December 2015, 2(3):49-51
Aim: The present study aims to evaluate chromosomal structure among couples with a history of recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal structure analysis was conducted on peripheral blood samples from couples with an indication of recurrent IVF failure at the Genetic Diagnosis Center Cytogenetics Laboratory between 2007 and 2012. All data were investigated retrospectively. Results: Abnormal chromosome organization was observed in 39 (15.8%) females and in four (1.7%) males. Moreover, chromosomal polymorphism was detected in 15 (6%) females and 28 (12%) males. Almost all chromosomal abnormalities were associated with sex chromosomes. Conclusion: Highly abnormal chromosome organization was observed in couples with recurrent IVF failures. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis should be offered to these patients to evaluate the likelihood of treatment success and the establishment of a healthy pregnancy.
  3,203 3,610 -
Evaluation of in vitro sensitivity of Colistin to carbapenemase producing gram-negative bacilli
Gunjan Shrivastava, Ganesh S Bhatambare, Kamlesh Patel
September-December 2014, 1(3):31-33
Context: Increasing resistance in gram-negative bacteria presents a critical problem. Limited therapeutic option has forced infectious disease clinicians and microbiologists to reappraise the clinical application of Colistin. Aims: Emergency of resistance to multiple drugs leaves behind very few therapeutic options to fight out carbapenemase resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Our objective was to study the in vitro sensitivity of Colistin to carbapenemase GNB. Settings and Design: This is the 6 months retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in the Microbiology department in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute, during the study period (June-November 2013). A total of 782 GNB were isolated. Out of 782, 172 were carbapenemase producer which were taken for present study. The entire testing was done under strict internal quality control using American type culture collection (ATCC) strains. Results: During the study period, 782 were examined. Out of 782 strains, 172 were found to produce carbapenemase activity. Out of 172 GNB strains, 164 (95.34%) were sensitive Colistin. Out of 164, 57 (34.75%) isolates sensitive to Colistin were found to be positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase production and 107 (65.24%) produced only carbapenemase. Among the resistant strains (08), 3 (37.5%) showed both carbapenemase and ESBL production and 5 (62.5%) were found to be positive only for carbapenemase production. Conclusions: Use of Colistin as therapeutic option can be increased by better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Colistin and its methanesulphate will allow the design of appropriate dosing regimens for maximizing efficacy while minimizing toxicity and the development of resistance.
  2,701 3,955 -
Fibroepithelial polyp of the glans penis
Sunder Goyal, Aseem Trikha, Kartikeya Kashyap, Shveta Narang
January-April 2015, 2(1):24-26
Fibroepithelial polyps are a benign growth of mesodermal origin that usually arises in the urinary tract. A 38-year-old man presented with painless polypoid penile mass at tip of penis. He had been using a cloth in the form of pad to clean urine from tip of glans for past 3 years. Wide local excision was done. The histopathologic diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp. A fibroepithelial polyp of the penis is very rare and is strongly linked with long-term condom catheter use. We present a case of fibroepithelial polyp of the glans that has no link with condom catheter use.
  6,226 256 1
Vitamin-A deficiency: A global cause of public health concern
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
May-August 2014, 1(2):29-30
  5,184 695 -
Femur nail-cortex contact length and aging
Ahmet A Karaarslan, Eyad Skiak, Hakan Aycan, Ahmet Ascioglu, Erhan Sesli
May-August 2016, 3(2):48-51
Aims: For prevention of interfragmentary shear motion in intramedullary nailing, the nail-cortex contact (N-CC) length should be long enough. This study was designed to assess the N-CC length changes related to the aging process. Materials and Methods: Femur anteroposterior (AP) radiograms of 204 patients older than 20 years were reamed virtually to be 13-mm, 14-mm, and 15-mm diameter artificial medullary cavities. Patients were divided into two major groups (males and females). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups - 20-39 years, 40-59 years, above 60 years, and above 70 years. The N-CC lengths of the femur diaphysis were measured in all groups and changes were compared between the groups. Results: For the 13-mm diameter artificial medullar cavity in female groups, the mean N-CC length value in the 20-39 years age group was 13.8 ± 4 cm, mean N-CC length value in the 40-59 years group was 11.6 ± 4.3 cm, mean N-CC length value in the above 60 years group was 9.4 ± 5.3 cm, and mean N-CC length value in the above 70 years age group were 8.8 ± 3 cm. A significant 48.6% decrease of N-CC length between 20-39-year and 40-59-year aged female groups was noticed (Z = −2.423; P = 0.015), whereas in the male groups, the significant N-CC length decrease (86%) was between the 40-59 years age group and above 70 years age group (Z = −4.279; P = 0.001). Conclusion: As N-CC length decreases after the age of 40 years in women and after the age of 70 years in men, thicker intramedullary nails should be used in these age groups for long N-CC area.
  4,798 786 -
Seventeen-year-old asymptomatic foreign body in the nose: Case report
Bilsev Ince, Mehmet Dadaci, Zeynep Altuntas
January-April 2014, 1(1):15-17
Several symptoms may be present in the case of a nasal foreign body. These symptoms include nasal discharge, epistaxis, infection, halitosis, foul breath or body odor, and chronic sinusitis. However, the presence of a nasal foreign body without these symptoms remains unreported. In this study, we present a case in which the foreign body stayed inside the patient's nose for 17 years after a trauma without symptoms like nasal discharge, epistaxis, infection, halitosis, foul breath or body odor, and chronic sinusitis.
  4,864 275 1
Haemolytic anemia and mothball toxicity: A case report
Ibrahim Aliyu, Zainab F Ibrahim
September-December 2014, 1(3):39-41
The risk of mothball poisoning is more in developing countries, where there is poor consumer protection; often products are poorly labeled and in most of the cases, consumers do not have product details. Naphthalene containing mothball poisoning may present late with anemia; and in malaria prone environment such as ours, there is tendency of miss-diagnosis, if history of exposure is not sort. Therefore, the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented 48-hours after exposure with severe anemia warranting blood transfusion is reported.
  4,630 414 -
Variation of branch of glossopharyngeal nerve leading to the submandibular gland
Ozan Turamanlar, Ercan Akbay, Yucel Gonul, Alaettin Celik, Ahmet Songur
May-August 2014, 1(2):24-26
Submandibular gland is the second largest salivary gland and comprised of two parts, superficial and deep part. The medial side of the superficial part of the gland neighbors to several structures like glossophayngeal nerve. It is innervated by lingual nerve (sensorial fibers) tympanic chord (parasympathetic fibers) and sympathetic trunk. During a routine dissection, a variant branch of glossopharyngeal nerve entering submandibular gland was observed in an adult male cadaver. During that surgical procedure in the parapharyngeal and submandibular spaces, preservation of the gland function and innervation has a major physiological importance. We did not have any chance to observe the clinical effect of this variation since it was demonstrated on a cadaver. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study published regarding this variation. To bear in mind that submandibular gland can be innervated from glossopharyngeal nerve as a variation is important to preserve the glandular function and to prevent cutting this nerve accidentally during surgery.
  4,568 368 -
Scope of acculturation in globalization and remodeling of health and disease-related outcomes
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
May-August 2014, 1(2):27-28
The concept of acculturation is used to describe adjustment of a foreign-born immigrant to their new country of residence by means of the adoption of newer customs, rituals, norms, and behaviors. In today's world, amidst the globalization, various reasons, such as international trade and commerce, industrialization, propagation of religion, education opportunities, vocational openings, and conquest, have facilitated "culture contact". Acculturation tends to have an important influence on health by bringing about alterations in the levels of stress, access to the healthcare delivery system, and by remodeling the general attitude of people towards health. To conclude, acculturation has a significant impact on almost all determinants of the health and it is an important phenomenon in the process of globalization and development of society in the modern era.
  4,316 402 -
Zika virus disease outbreaks in the American region in 2015-2016
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
May-August 2016, 3(2):56-57
  4,144 489 -
Magnanimous effects and role of dietary nutrition on carcinogenesis: A comprehensive review of literature
Prashant Tyagi, Gaurav Shrama, Sharib Hussain, Atish Kundu, Ashish Gaur, Prince Kumar
January-April 2014, 1(1):5-8
Oral cancer is one of the most critical health problems faced by the mankind today. Cancer is a result of multiple genetic defects resulting from exposure to environmental and infectious agents. Most of the oral cancers are associated with tobacco use and some are attributed to inappropriate nutritional habits. Tobacco chewing is a unique habit of Indian, southeast Asian subcontinent and is consumed commonly in the form of pan, gutka, etc. Furthermore, cancer prevention strategies can be applied by upregulating the defense mechanism, inducing cancer cells to apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis of cancer cells. Nutritional factors play a key role in cancer impediment by increasing the intake of vegetables and fruits. This paper is an effort to draw the attention towards the significant role of diet in cancer prevention and associated mechanisms with its carcinogenesis.
  3,728 292 -
How can we minimize the health-related consequences of El Niρo on millions of people worldwide?
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
May-August 2016, 3(2):54-55
  3,526 491 -
The evaluation of last seven years maternal mortality in Manisa, Turkey
Fatma Eskicioglu, Burcu Artunc Ulkumen, Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir, Galip Koroglu
September-December 2014, 1(3):34-38
Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the last 7-year rates of maternal mortality and the causes of maternal mortality in Manisa including Aegean region in the western part of the country. Study design: Maternal mortalities in Manisa determined by Maternal Mortality Commission were examined between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012. The classification of maternal mortality was performed as directly, indirectly, and incidentally. The annual rates and numbers of maternal deaths, causes of death, and demographic data were obtained from the records. Maternal mortality ratio is calculated as the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. Results: A total of 32 maternal deaths cases were reviewed between 2006 and 2012. A total of seven incidental maternal deaths of 32 were not evaluated. A total of five direct maternal deaths and 20 indirect maternal deaths were recorded. Maternal mortality rate (per 100.000 per live births) was 28.86 in 2006. This ratio decreased to 10.7 in 2012. Considering the leading causes of maternal death, the diseases of the circulatory system complicating the pregnancy and puerperium (28%) rank first. When direct maternal deaths are only evaluated, the most common cause was hemorrhage, which was followed by the disseminated intravascular coagulation. In all, six over eight (42%) maternal mortality in which delay model was detected were recorded as matched with third. Conclusion: In conclusion, an incentive to demand primary pregnancy advisory service is necessary for minimizing indirect maternal deaths and the need of medical staff must be fulfilled. Postpartum monitoring will be performed during the postnatal period especially in the first 24 h. Sensitivity must be showed for the training of medical staff that will perform emergency obstetric care when required.
  2,588 1,345 -
Asymptomatic cervical diverticulum: An unusual case
Guluzar Arzu Turan, Ozlem Ince, Dilek Gunduz, Esra Bahar Gur, Sumeyra Tatar, Mine Genc
May-August 2016, 3(2):52-53
Herein is presented the case report of a patient who had secondary infertility. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) and subsequent diagnostic hysteroscopy revealed an asymptomatic cervical diverticulum. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was suggested for infertility due to bilateral tubal occlusion. We also informed the patient that her diverticulum does not require surgical intervention due to the absence of symptoms.
  3,590 306 -
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Hum ethanolic extract fractions
Mukesh Singh Sikarwar, MB Patil
May-August 2015, 2(2):31-36
Aim: This study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Hum ethanolic extract fractions in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Oral administrations of 500 mg/kg body weight of various fractions of selected plant were evaluated for possible hyperlipidemic activity in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for duration of 48 hours and 14 days, respectively. A comparative assessment was also made between the actions of selected drug with known anti-hyperlipidemic drug simvastatin. The outcomes of the study were expressed as mean± standard error (SE) and data was evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett's t-test for multiple comparisons. Results and Discussion: Ethanolic extract Ethyl acetate fraction of Crataeva nurvala stem bark 500 mg/kg body weight on oral administration exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in serum lipid parameters like triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats as compared with hyperlipidemic control in both models. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Crataeva nurvala Buch-Hum ethanol extract ethyl acetate fractions possessed significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
  3,535 352 -
Ewing's sarcoma arising from base of nasal cavity and extending to nasopharynx and oral cavity
Ercan Akbay, Mehmet Yaldiz, Cengiz Cevik, Mehmet Ates, Tumay Ozgur
January-April 2015, 2(1):15-17
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a malignant, small cell tumor of skeletal system seen in young adults and children. The prognosis is very poor in this type of tumor, which has a metastasis potential at an early stage. It is rarely seen in head and neck region; mandible is involved relatively frequent while paranasal involvement is very rare. Furthermore, ES arising from base of nasal cavity and hard palate is extremely rare. The aim of this report was to discuss a 14-year-old girl with ES arising from base of nasal cavity and extending to nasopharynx in the light of literature.
  3,569 269 -
An urgent renal autotransplantation in patient with ureteral avulsion
Cem Tugmen, Ismail Sert, Ferruh Zorlu, Cezmi Karaca
September-December 2015, 2(3):52-55
Uretrorenoscopy (URS) has become the gold standard in the treatment of ureteral stones. Ureteral avulsion (0.1-0.3%) and ureteral perforation (1.7-6%) are the worst morbid complications of the URS. Ureteral avulsion has been mostly encountered in URS procedures for ureteral stones in the ureteropelvic junction. Renal autotransplantation is one of the elective treatment options in patients with ureteral avulsion. An urgent renal autotransplantation owing to an iatrogenic ureteral avulsion after a ureteral extraction in a 42-year-old female patient who underwent URS is presented in the light of literature.
  2,242 1,480 -
Use of guideliner cathater in saphenous vein graft: A case report
Ahmet Tastan, Erdem Ozel, Ali Ozturk, Samet Uyar, Omer Senarslan, Talat Tavli
January-April 2014, 1(1):12-14
Guideliner catheter (Vascular Solutions, Minneapolis, MN) is a novel, rapid exchange system which allows deep intubation and facilitate equipment delivery through the complex coronary lesions. We describe the use of this device in a percutaneous intervention of a native diagonal lesion through tortious and calcific saphenous vein graft.
  3,428 263 -
Comamonas testosteroni endocarditis in Turkey: A case report and review of the literature
Arzu Duran, Ahmet Feyzi Abacilar, Ihsan Sami Uyar, Mehmet Besir Akpinar, Veysel Sahin, Faik Fevzi Okur, Mehmet Ates, Emin Alp Alayunt
May-August 2015, 2(2):44-47
Introduction: Comamonas testosteroni is a gram-negative bacillus which commonly occurs in various environments worldwide. Comamonas testosteroni is rarely recognized as a human pathogen. The case we report is the first Comamonas testosteroni endocarditis in Turkey and the fourth case in the world. Case Presentation: A 51-year-old male patient with a history of chest pain, dyspnea, and tachycardia was admitted to our hospital. Coronary angiography and echocardiography results revealed mobile lesions and plaques in aortic valve. Cardiovascular surgery was performed; aortic valve vegetation was detected and the aortic valve was excised. Aerobic culture was studied. After the biochemical identification tests and the use of VITEK-2 Compact (Biomerieux, France) automated microbial identification system, pathogenic bacteria was identified as Comamonas testosteroni. The patient who had no risk factors was diagnosed with endocarditis and treated with Ciprofloxacin. The case recovered from Comamonas testosteroni infection. Conclusion: There has been an increase in bacterial infections caused by Comamonas testosteroni and antibiotic resistance of the bacteria. For this reason, Comamonas testosteroni infections have increasingly become important. There have only been four cases from Turkey so far. This paper also examines the other cases in the literature as a whole.
  3,368 306 3