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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 18-20

Role of exercise testing in assessment of cardiovascular system function in Zarda users


1 Department of Physiology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Physiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Amrith Pakkala
Department of Physiology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Chittoor Dist., Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2148-7731.132963

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Background: Zarda is a widely used form of smokeless tobacco in India. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on cardiovascular functions. Zarda is prepared by a user by mixing tobacco with lime in palm and gives the user the choice to change the combination. This study aims to determine the effect of Zarda on cardiovascular system adaptability to exercise. There are conflicting opinions about the degree of adaptability of the cardiovascular system in delivering the physiological needs in case of severe exercise. A role of the normal cardiovascular system in delivering oxygen to meet the demands of various degrees of exercise has been a topic of considerable debate. The effect of Zarda usage on this phenomenon is studied here. Materials and Methods: Cardiovascular functions were assessed after maximal exercise testing by recording parameters like maximum heart rate, delta heart rate, recovery heart rate and maximum oxygen pulse in two groups, namely Zarda users and non-user controls. Results: On studying the differences in cardiovascular functions in users and controls, there was a significant difference found in maximum heart rate. The other parameters like delta heart rate and maximum oxygen pulse were on the higher side in controls while the recovery heart rate was significantly lower in the control group which was consistently maintained after exercise testing. Based on these findings it is suggested that there is a higher adaptability of the cardiovascular system to the exercise stimulus in the form of better VO 2 max, faster recovery of the exercise heart rate, and a lesser risk for cardiovascular mortality as suggested by the higher delta heart rate in non-Zarda users.


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