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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 41-47

A community-based comparative study of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among urban and rural populations in a coastal town of South India


1 Department of Community Medicine, Kannur Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, KVG Medical College, Sullia, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences and Reasearch Hospital, Tumkur, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Imaad Mohammed Ismail
Department of Community Medicine, Kannur Medical College, Anjarakkandy, Kannur - 670 612, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2148-7731.182001

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Background: Hypertension is the new-era pandemic, which causes about 7.1 million deaths per year globally. Various risk factors are implicated in the development of hypertension and there are differences in these risk factors in urban and rural populations depending on the level of development and epidemiological transition. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to identify and compare some sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with hypertension in urban and rural populations of Sullia, Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: This was a community based cross-sectional study in which 300 adults each were randomly selected from urban and rural populations of the town of Sullia using modified cluster sampling method. Selected individuals were examined and interviewed using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 21.0% (23.7% in the urban population and 18.3% in the rural population). Increasing age, sedentary occupation, higher socioeconomic status, extra salt intake, family history of hypertension, reduced physical activity, tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 , and high waist-hip ratio (WHR) were found to be significant risk factors of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , and high WHR were found to be predominant risk factors of hypertension in the urban areas, whereas smokeless tobacco consumption was a predominant risk factor in the rural areas. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypertension was observed in both urban and rural populations of Sullia, Karnataka, South India. Hence, mass screening should be done for early diagnosis and treatment. Prevention and control activities should give higher priority toward obesity control in urban areas and smokeless tobacco control in rural areas.


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